DISASTROUS CAMPAIGNS 415 up a square foot of the territories ceded to Russia, he proposed an alliance against Turkey. Further demands were for the passage through Astrabad and Khorasan of a Russian army destined to invade Khiva, and for the establishment of a Russian agent at Resht. All these proposals, together with an offer to supply Russian officers to train the Persian army, were politely refused, and the Russian envoy, after being magnificently entertained, left Teheran loaded with gifts. Afghan Campaigns, 1805 and 1817-1818.óWe must now return for a short while to Afghanistan. In A.H. 1222 (1805) the erstwhile refugee Firuz Mirza, who was Governor of Herat, attempted to capture Ghorian, a fortress on the frontier which had remained in Persian hands. He was defeated and, being followed up to the gates of Herat, agreed to pay to Persia arrears of tribute for two years and to give his son as a hostage for his good faith. Twelve years later, in 1817, Hasan Ali Mirza, a son of Fath Ali Shah, marched to Herat to punish a further attack on Ghorian. Again Firuz Mirza bought off the invaders by a payment of fifty thousand tomans and by ordering the public prayers to be read and the coinage to be stamped in the name of Fath Ali Shah. After the departure of the Persian army he was alarmed at the possible consequences of his acts and asked for military assistance from Kabul. Mahmud Shah, who had been released from prison, and had driven Shah Shuja into exile at Ludhiana, was the nominal Amir of Afghanistan, but Fatteh Khan Barakzai, his Vizier, was all-powerful, and at his instance Firuz Mirza was treacherously seized and deported to Kabul. The chiefs of Khorasan were then incited to rise against the Shah, and the Khan of Khiva was persuaded to invade the province in the interests of Afghanistan. Hasan Ali Mirza met this critical situation with firmness. In 1818 he attacked Fatteh Khan, who was defeated and wounded. Shortly afterwards Fath Ali Shah reached the theatre of war with a large force and Mahmud Shah purchased immunity from invasion by agreeing to blind his Vizier, who was afterwards barbarously executed.